The triumphal arch of Constantine (Arco di Costantino)
From the gallery of the South-Western sectors of the Colosseum, you can view the Palatine hill and via di S. Gregorio, at the very beginning of which you can see the three-span white marble gate (on the mapThe arch was erected on the occasion of the victory of the Emperor Constantine, won by him on October 28, 312 in the battle of the Milvian bridge. the Victory put an end to the struggle for the Roman throne between the prefect of Gaul Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus and Marcus Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius), who usurped power in 207. As a result, the tyrant was drowned in the Tiber while fleeing, his two sons were executed, and Constantine became ruler of the Western part of the Roman Empire. Constantine went down in history as the Emperor who declared Christianity the official religion of Rome and moved the capital to Byzantium (Constantinople, now Istanbul).
The construction of the triumphal arch, named after the Victor (Arcus Constantini), began immediately after the battle, and the opening took place on July 25, 315. The arch opened the triumphal alley (Via Triumphalis, now S. Gregorio). The structure is 21 meters high and measures 25.7 by 7.4 meters in plan, made of marble blocks, has a main span of 11.5 meters high and 6.5 meters wide and two side spans with dimensions of 7.4 by 3.4 meters.
The attic was laid out of brick and faced with marble, there are eight bas-reliefs relating to a completely different event - the war with the Sarmatians of the time of Marcus Aurelius, which took place a century and a half earlier-1690175 years. Bas-reliefs, presumably, were removed from the monument dedicated to the victory in this battle. On the South side, on the right, one bas-relief depicts the Emperor's speech to the troops, the second-the sacrifice of a pig, sheep and bull.
С левой стороны на барельефах изображены император и пленники. Между коринфскими колоннами из нумидийского желтого мрамора расположены двухметровые медальоны, изображающие события эпохи Адриана: выезд на охоту, принесение жертвы, сцены охоты. Фигуры Адриана на медальонах получили головы Константина.
Барельефы на боковых стенах аттика изображают битву с даками. На колоннах установлены скульптуры даков (франков) , вероятно позаимствованные с форума Траяна.
This "eclecticism" is explained by the fact that the construction was carried out in a short time. There is also a version that the use of images from the times of popular emperors counts Constantine among them.
The arch of Constantine is the most" new " of the three surviving triumphal structures of Rome, the arch of Titus belongs to the 81-90 years, the arch of Septimius Severus was built in 202-203 ad. The decor of this building is a wonderful collection of sculptural images of rulers of different eras. In the second half of the 20th century, the Foundation of the structure was excavated, which led to the assumption that the monument was built in the time of Hadrian, and in the era of Constantine was significantly rebuilt - the columns were moved, the attic was built over the arches. Now the arch is surrounded by a fence, otherwise the crowds of tourists would have long ago dragged it stone by stone for Souvenirs.