Castillo de Montjuic
During the construction of Olympic facilities in 1991-1992, evidence was found that the top of mount Montjuic was inhabited during the Paleolithic period. This place was exceptionally convenient for connecting sea and land trade routes.
There is also documentary evidence that in 1031 there was a watchtower on the top with observers who, in case of danger from the sea, gave light signals to the inhabitants of the lower part of ancient Barcelona.
The first military fortifications appeared in 1640, during the revolt against the deprivation of Catalan autonomy rights (Segadores revolt). On January 26, 1641, the fortification successfully repelled the attack of the Castilian army, despite the fact that it was a square surrounded by a moat and earthen rampart. This episode is known as the"Battle of Montjuic".
In 1652, Barcelona was captured by the troops of Philip IV, who placed a permanent garrison on the mountain.
In 1688-1697, under the leadership of the military engineer Loreto Tossi, three bastions were built, connected by a wall, facing the land, and an artillery battery on the sea side. The 1640 Fort became the inner citadel.
In 1751, the military engineer Juan Martin Cermeno built a trapezoidal Central building with a tower and a square in the center on the site of the old Fort.
Двор носит название "Оружейный" (Placa de Armas), в окружающих его галереях размещались казармы. Сейчас здесь можно видеть только столики кафе.
Крепость получила новые стены, перед которыми были вырыты глубокие рвы.
Для заполнения рва водой была устроена система сбора дождевой воды, правда, сомнительно, что она была эффективна, во всяком случае сейчас рвы совершенно сухие и представляют собой аккуратные газоны.
In 1799, the works were completed, and the fortress took on the appearance that has survived to this day.
At the beginning of the 18th century, during the War of the Spanish succession, the castle was occupied for eight years by the troops of Charles of Austria.
29 on February 1808, Napoleon's army entered Barcelona, and the castle of Montjuic was surrendered to Colonel Floresti without a fight. Just as bloodlessly in 1813, the castle returned to the Spanish crown.
In 1842 and 1943, the castle's artillery severely bombarded residential areas of Barcelona, where another uprising against Spanish rule broke out. Since then, the castle has turned from an object of defense to a place of social and political repression - the prison on its territory existed for more than a century.
Here anarchists were tried after the terrorist attack of 1896 ("the Montjuic Trial"), as a result of the revolt against conscription in the colonial army ("Tragic week"), about 1,700 people were arrested, the organizers of the revolt were shot, and in 1919, after a strike at the La Canadenca power plant, more than 3,000 workers were imprisoned.
With the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931, the city Council of Barcelona obtained from the government the transfer of the fortress to city ownership. However, as is often the case, the new authorities could not decide what to do with it next. Proposals were made to demolish the castle and erect a complex of buildings of the Parliament of Catalonia in its place.
Meanwhile, the" struggle for universal equality " was replaced by Catalan separatism. On October 6, 1934, the power of the Madrid officials was overthrown and the Catalan state was proclaimed under the leadership of Lewis Companis. The new fighters for the happiness of the individual Catalan people first set up a military camp and political prison in the castle, where a speedy trial and execution of supporters of the United Spanish state was planned.
In July, there was a military revolt against the Republic, and on August 23, 1936, in Barcelona, under the leadership of the same Boss, the legitimate government was again overthrown. The new coup was already under the banner of anti-fascism and gave rise to a new wave of repression organized by Pro-Communist forces.
From 1936 to 1939, up to 1,500 people were held in the fortress, 250 of them were shot on sentences of treason and espionage. The "fighters for national happiness" pursued with equal passion both Franco's supporters and their ideological opponents - Trotskyists and other "wrong believers" in Communist ideas. Just sane citizens who spoke out against the lawlessness organized by leftists in the spirit of "divide everything"also fell under the repression.
After the fall of Barcelona, which became the final stage of the Civil war on January 26, 1936, the fortress was occupied by nationalist troops. During the Franco dictatorship, more than four thousand political prisoners were shot in the castle, including the President of the Catalan Republic, Lewis Companis.
The castle served as a prison until 1960, when it was transferred to the administration of the city Council of Barcelona. After reconstruction, in June 1963, Franco personally opened the fortress and its military Museum to the public.
The military Museum remained under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of defense, as well as some part of the fortress was occupied by military communications.
In 2007, the entire territory was transferred to civilian use, the antennas were dismantled, and the Museum was closed. Some of the exhibits were transferred to the municipal museums of Barcelona and Girona, while the other part was transferred to the museums of the military Department..
Now in the premises of the former military Museum you can only find a room with information about the history of the fortress, in other rooms temporary exhibitions are held.
Today I saw photo documents about the Condor Legion, which fought in the civil war on the side of the Francoists.
And an exhibition dedicated to a writer, I don't remember which one...
In one of the halls, you can see the remains of ancient foundations discovered during the construction of the Central building.
In 1936, a battery of four 152mm Vickers naval guns was placed on the sea wall.
These guns have never fired a single shot and have not been serviced for a long time.
There are several monuments on the territory of the fortress.
According to the inscription, this Nude figure was presented to Barcelona by the Governor of California in 1986.
From the height of the fortress, you can view the cruise port of Barcelona, built for the Olympic games in 1992. Closer to the mountainside is the railway platform of the cargo port.
An 18th-century artillery piece in front of the entrance to the fortress.
The Montjuic fortress is open to the public daily from 10 am, and is open from November to March until 6 PM, and from April to October until 20: 00. Public holidays are January 1 and December 25. The ticket office closes half an hour before closing time. The ticket price is 5 euros, children's 3 euros.On Sundays, free access is available 3 hours before closing time, and the fortress can be visited free of charge for the entire day on the first Sunday of the month. Open Days are held on 12 February, 18 may, 24 and 25 September.