Praça do Rossio
Square of don Pedro IV, (Praça Dom Pedro IV on the map), but the inhabitants of Lisbon often call itРоссиу (Praça do Rossio)this was the name of the square from its very Foundation, until a monument to the first Brazilian Emperor was erected on it in 1874, which gave it a new name. The square was formed in the 13th-14th century, when the boundaries of the growing city went beyond the hill of St. George's castle. The square was named rossiu, which can be interpreted as a"public place".
In 1450, the Estaus Palace was erected, intended for foreign embassies, in the following century, the building was occupied by the highest body of the Portuguese Inquisition, and since 1450, the square has become a place of executions. In 1504, by order of Joao II, the Royal hospital of All Saints was built on the square. All this splendor was destroyed by the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. After the earthquake, the square was surrounded by houses in the Manueline style (the most famous buildings in this style are the Jeronimos monastery and the tower of belém). In the 19th century, the square was reconstructed, paved with wavy mosaics, and two fountains made in France were installed.
In 1836, all that remained of the Palace of the Inquisition after an earthquake was destroyed by fire and in its place in 1840, the building of the National theater, named after Queen Mary II, was erected by the Italian architect Gile Vincente.
To the left of the theater, there is a building that can be mistaken for a Palace, but in fact, it is aRossio train station (Estação de Caminhos de Ferro do Rossio on the map), built in 1887 by the architect joão Luis Monteiro. Until 1957, the Central station was located here, but after the construction of the Grand Oriente Station, it was named after the square located next to it. The building was built in the art Nouveau style, which was just beginning to become fashionable in Europe, as evidenced by the use of curved forms and plant ornaments.
The main portal consists of two arches resembling the Greek letters "omega" - a symbol of art Nouveau style. I probably would have remained in the dark about the purpose of this building if it hadn't been for chance... Late one evening, I was trying to find a place to eat (catering in Portugal closes quite early), and as I passed by , I saw a cafe working behind the Windows of the first floor of this "Palace". Before that, I had not noticed any fuss at the entrance, which is typical of all railway stations...well, the Portuguese people are generally not fussy and never in a hurry anywhere.